Considerable measures have been taken to minimize the public’s exposure to Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), two chemicals categorized into a larger group known as Per – Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). With everyday items – such as food packaging, fire-fighting foam, stain- and water-repellant fabrics in some carpeting and clothing, non-stick pans, among others – laced with these chemicals, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has carefully studied the harmful effects these substances may cause. It has been disclosed that exposure to these chemicals at certain levels may result in fetal developmental issues, cancer, and various other adverse health effects. Due to the potential risk, health guidelines have been established. With drinking water becoming a primary concern, EPA announced a lifetime health advisory for PFAS in drinking water in May 2016. This mandates a PFAS warning to consumers if contaminants exceeded the levels over 70 parts per trillion in the community drinking water supply.
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